Friday, February 21, 2020

Competency Criteria Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Competency Criteria - Essay Example Faculty evaluation also provides an opportunity for change in the process of teaching, handing of student diversity, curriculum development among other relevant areas incompetent instruction. Assessment 1. Facilitate learning This is the most important competency for all nurse educators. The faculty should be able to make the learning process possible by; A. (Task requirement: show enthusiasm by teaching). The faculty should make learning exciting to the learners by being enthusiastic about teaching. An enthusiastic teacher passionate about teaching and take pride in passing on information to their learners. An enthusiastic educator passes on his morale to his students who end up liking the learning process, and therefore, learning more. B. (Task requirement: Show an interest in a learner’s progress and activities). The faculty should also demonstrate an interest in the learner’s actions. The educator must be available to assist learners in their time of need and offer solutions to their problems. A learner should know that they can always get help in their educational and personal support from their faculty. C. (Task requirement: Show understanding to all learners). The faculty should be able to provide for their learner’s unique needs in terms of gender, experience, and multiculturalism among other differences. Every learner is different from the other in one way or the other, and the all should feel at home being a part of the nursing faculty without discrimination or abandonment. D. (Task requirement: Facilitate tutor and learner interaction). The faculty should increase cooperation between educators and the learner. Learning can only take place if there is information. This is facilitated by teacher learner communication as the educator will know the level of understanding of the learner and also identify individual differences in the learners through cooperation. 2. Facilitate learner development and socialization Nurse educators have the responsibility to help students develop to become professional nurses and integrate the values and performance required in the role of nursing (Meyer & Van, 2008). The faculty can do this by; A. (Task requirement: Show students demonstrations). Providing students with demonstrations and examples on just how they are required to do things as professional nurses. The faculty should ensure that the learners have the necessary skills needed to use resources to learn and improve themselves as potential nurses. B. (Task requirement: Meet individual learner needs). The faculty should use the required resources to diverse learners to enable them meet their unique needs. These can be in terms of extra tutorials for learners who are using English as a second language or have different programs to cater for a wide range of students, for example; those who need evening classes. C. (Task requirement: Encourage group discussions). The faculty should encourage learning through discussions as they create an opportunity for the learner to improve their communication and interpersonal skills as they interact with one another. Discussions can also be in the form of private talks with the educators where the students are offered a chance to set

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

C.P. Ellis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

C.P. Ellis - Essay Example He worked day in and day out and even worked in the week ends in order to gain some extra money but ended up being angry, annoyed and frustrated as he saw little success. With all these efforts that he had been putting, he was not even able to break even, that is to say, he was not even able generate enough income to sustain himself. With all this building up inside him, he did not know who to blame for all that was happening and who should be held responsible for his failures, one after the other. He wanted to vent out the anger and frustration upon something. Blaming the situation or the country could not help because it can not be personified. With this at his background, he joined the Klan which was meant for the anti black movement in order to 'hate' them in a formalized manner. The fact that his father was also a member of the Klan once upon a time and that his initial mental makeup was done up by his father, he was more inclined towards joining the Klan. While doing this, he assumed that this would solve his problems that he was seeing at personal level. Many members of the klan were of lower income and education and they joined it because it gave them a platform for hating and opposing the blacks, which they could not do in an equally efficient manner when they were individuals. Also, the Klan gave Ellis a certain kind of respect and recognition that he was deeply longing for, and which he had not received till date. When Ellis took the oath in the presence of more than four hundred Klan members, he felt certain kind of satisfaction for being respected and honored. 3. How did C.P. Ellis's assumptions about the Klan and those who were in power change Why did they change Ellis took great honor himself with the fact that the municipal council members would call him up from their side in late hours and spoke to him in person. He had a certain sense of importance felt with this and thus felt good about that because he had never received any such treatment when he had not joined the Klan. However, at one instance, he realized that the behavior of the municipal council men was not the same in public as it is in the private. He felt that the people in the power would avoid him in public so their associations are not revealed. This was the first instance when Ellis found that something was wrong with the people in power. He felt that the people who were in power were using the groups of black and the white by dividing them and then with their support they would be in power. Both the groups were being used against each other in order to achieve their motive. By keeping them engaged in fighting the council men made it sure that none came up to a level where they would have to share the power with them because they were unwilling to part from the wealth and the power that they were enjoying. When he tried to put this point through in the Klan meetings, he was unable to make people convince and think the way he was. Fellow members of the Klan would no believe that the people in the council were not really working fro the whites but were using them. This make Ellis

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Environmental Impacts of the Manhattan Project

Environmental Impacts of the Manhattan Project Background In the year 1940, the US government started their own nuclear weapons project that was later named The Manhattan Project. This was due to the fact that some American scientists, who were comprised mostly of European refugees, feared that Nazi Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, was already conducting their own nuclear weapons development (Independence Hall Association, n.d.). The development of the atomic bomb was then moved to Los Alamos in New Mexico where the project was overlooked by Robert J. Oppenheimer and his team. In the morning of July 6 1945, the first nuclear bomb was successfully detonated. 2 types of nuclear bomb were later developed. The first one was a gun-type fission weapon that used uranium-235 while the second one was a much powerful and efficient but also more complicated implosion-type nuclear weapon using plutonium-239. Both the bomb was given the nickname â€Å"Little Boy† and â€Å"Fat Man† and was later detonated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The atomic bomb was initially to be detonated in Nazi Germany. But with the surrender of Nazi Germany after their leader, Adolf Hitler, committed suicide, the attention was then turned on the Japanese who was still fighting in the war. The initial plan to force the Japanese to surrender was to launch Operation Downfall (Trueman, n.d.). The plans of the operation were to continue to bomb Japan using the US bombers followed by a massive land invasion. If the invasion were to happen, the US military will lose more than a million personnel. To avoid such tragedy from happening, the US president, Harry S. Truman, insisted to use the atomic bomb on Japan. On the morning of August 6 1945, the atomic bomb, Little Boy, was dropped over Hiroshima (Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, n.d.). The blast of the atomic bomb is equivalent to 12,000-15,000 tons of TNT and it destroyed about 5 square miles of the cities. Furthermore, some 70,000-80,000 people died as a result of the explosion and around 70,000 people were injured. Similarly, the atomic bomb that blasted in the mid-air of Nagasaki also caused a substantial amount of casualties. The high number of deaths was not the only aftermath of the nuclear explosion, but it also affected the environment and also the people’s health around Hiroshima as well as Nagasaki. Environmental Impacts The onset of Japan’s nightmare was marked, as the two atomic bombs that were set in motion by the United States exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively. The disastrous impacts of both atomic bombs essentially rest upon the intensity, energy and power liberated at the point of bombing. Nuclear weapons such as the atomic bomb bring about a relentless amount of destruction to the environment and the climate on a scale imitable to any other lethal mankind armament. In retrospect, not only that the use of atomic bombings in the war gave humanity a giant blood stain, but also shows us that an atomic bomb is no mere explosion, it also has the ability to leave numerous impacts on the environment. There were many environmental effects caused by the atomic bombing. One of them was the emission of the tremendous amount of radiation (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). Like any other atomic bombing, fallout happened during the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Fallout, according to the Oxford dictionary, is defined as the process in which radioactive particles are carried into the atmosphere following a nuclear explosion and falling back onto the ground later as dust or in precipitation. As a result, thick ‘black rain’ that contains radioactive soot and dust started falling from the sky, reaching the ground as hazardous radioactive water. The black rain did not only damage the surroundings and the infrastructures but it also caused radiation poisoning through inhalation and the consumption of contaminated food and water (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). The radiation emitted lasted for decades where many unfortunate victims who were exposed to intense amount of high r adiation had to bear with leukemia and Keloids (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). Contaminated areas with high levels of residual radiation remained contagious for an extended amount of time, putting thousands in long periods of lethal infirmity. The process of healing is often slow resulting in immense deterioration of the immune system. Since there is no effective treatment, death follows in a matter of days. Likewise, the explosions of the atomic bomb also led to environmental contamination. The contamination of water is one of the most severe. When living organisms happen to drink the water that is exposed to radiation, be it humans or animals, they are very likely to suffer from serious health problems. Worse still, when rivers in the cities were contaminated, the current brought the radioactive water to other parts of Japan and eventually into the ocean, spreading the radiation beyond Japan itself. This implies that even people who don’t stay in or near Hiroshima and Nagasaki will still be affected by the radiation. The contamination of soil and air is just equally horrible. When the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki exploded in the middle of the air, high degree of radiation was emitted and carried by wind to areas beyond the cities. It then dispersed gradually and led to radioactive air contamination. Similarly, plants and agriculture products further away from the center of ex plosions were also contaminated along with the soil. The radioactive soil became extremely infertile while the agricultural products that didn’t get burned up could no longer be consumed due to the radiation they contain. The contamination gave Japan a hard time recuperating and it took months before the Japanese citizens could put foot in either of these cities again. In addition, the atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki also brought about thermal radiation that burned the surrounding with extreme heat. The explosions generated powerful shockwaves together with enormous fireballs that killed thousands of people within seconds. This ultimately gave rise to a large firestorm as the individual flames combined, and before long, both cities were covered in thick black smoke. Through the process of combustion, the firestorms used up substantial amount of oxygen in the atmosphere to produce flame (â€Å"The Effects of Nuclear Weapons,† n.d.). The smoke released into the atmosphere by the wild fires also produced soot that causes the global temperature to fall. In a recent study, scientists have found out that, a nuclear war that involves 100 Hiroshima-sized bombs would cause the global temperature to fall to Ice Age levels. (â€Å"The Environmental Effects of Nuclear Weapons,† n.d.). This would have an overwhelming impact on all of huma nity. Besides, the aftermath of the atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki further resulted in drastic climate change. As noted earlier, when the atomic bombs were dropped, an enormous amount of heat wave was released into the air. This vast heat wave was later suppressed relatively by the process of rapid cooling. These circumstances were the perfect setting for the mass production of nitric oxides (Chen, 2010). The massive amount of nitric oxides that is transported to the atmosphere weakens the concentration of the protective ozone layer which is essential to block and protect us from the deadly ultraviolet rays from entering the Earth’s surface. The nitric oxides formed decreased the ozone levels in the Northern Hemisphere and such depletion utter tremendous alteration to the Earth’s climate. A study shows that nuclear battle involving atomic bombs would bring about an enormous hole in the Earth’s ozone layer that would unmask millions of lives to excessive amount of the blazing sunrays (Chen, 2010). It would permit even more ultraviolet rays directly from the sun to penetrate the mere surface of the Earth. With that, if exposed, consequences such as hazardous burns and many other serious ecological effects would emerge. Besides, the increase in excessive amount of ultraviolet rays leads to a steep rise in skin cancer and cataracts among humans. Moreover, like we humans, land and aquatic creatures, who apportion the same living space, would also face the repercussion of the atomic bomb in a direction that it disrupts their regular food chains that would fetch the entire ecosystem to a standstill (Jha, 2006). Ultimately, all the effects that came about from the explosion of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki shows a clear validation of the Earth’s fragility towards the overwhelming desire of ultimate power, selfishness and the presumptuous nature of humans who ignore the degradation of the environment. This irresponsible and unthoughtful behavior would eventually result in inevitable consequences that bring a sense of regret and suffering that we humans should bear upon ourselves in the final stage. In short, the atomic bombs dropped in Nagasaki and Hiroshima brought destruction to the environment of the cities, at the same time contributed to global pollution and possibly a lot more post-effects that have yet to be discovered. Mitigation/Remediation Activities As if they knew there was no time to grief over their devastated state of their quintessential cities when the war came to an end with detonation of two vicious, powerful atomic bombs. Everything was gone as they came. But yet, they fret not. The Japanese, although have had their morale shattered, stood right back at their feet contemplating solutions to the matter at hands. And today, their efforts are proven success with evidence of both cities recovered almost perfectly from the bombings. So, the question remained on how did the Japanese manage to resuscitate Hiroshima and Nagasaki the cities of ruins into functional metropolises today? (Coping with Chaos, 2006) After the Atomic Bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, it was completely vanquished. Buildings destroyed, countless dead and resources were utterly depleted. People started finding ways on how to recover from such impact and to make it whole again. As terrible as it sounded, radiation seemed to be the worst impact for people in Hiroshima as it cannot be fully recovered for those who were affected. The radiation led to diseases that brought death to unimaginable amount of people and that it can hardly be avoided. While victims that are affected were hospitalized in Hiroshima A-bomb Hospital, some were evacuated to countryside without any choice in order to avoid from further affections. On the other hand doctors and nurses were mostly among the victims thus, resulting in failure to perform their duty to help others. There was also a major shortage in medical supplies due to the bombing that destroyed most of it (Coping with Chaos, 2006). From here we can clearly see that there is no specific solution in terms of medical aids for victims that were affected. Besides that, due to radiation released from nuclear reactions, the environment of the drop site was contaminated. In the advent of nuclear war, it is clear that no one knew the destructive power these nuclear bombs could impose moreover the effects. Hence, when Hiroshima and Nagasaki occurred, there was no solution to the problem until they analyze the consequences the bombs had caused after the incident. Without an unravelment at that moment of time, the only way to repel these radiations is to rely on the elements’ natural ability to decay over time which is 700 million years, for Uranium-235 that detonated at Hiroshima, and 24,000 years, for Plutonium-239 at Nagasaki respectively (Takahashi, 2011). The evidence of human existence today is due to the fact that when the bombs were dropped, it detonated in the air, ergo reducing the actual damage of the radiation to the surrounding at ground zero. This is because with an air burst, a detonated explosive weapon in the air, the fission products rise into stratosphere where they disperse hence reducing the effect of nuclear fallout as the radiation released from the fireball of the bomb is kept from touching ground (Glasstone Dolan, 1977). As time passes, people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki needed a way to rise again and they needed it desperately but they knew it was impossible to recover immediately. It was really hard for them to cope with the aftermath of the whole bombing but their hope never died. Hiroshima today is indeed in a good and peaceful condition surrounded by roughly one million people with self-awareness just like any other city around the globe (Powell Hiroshima, 2005). Buildings were destroyed, massive diseases took place but a wiped out city has to be rebuilt in every aspect especially in terms of physical, emotional and psychological. Not long after the strike, Hiroshima came up with an idea on constructing a peace memorial but it somehow turned out to be a peace memorial park. Powell and Hiroshima (2005) asserts that the centerpiece was transformed into a peace museum as remembrance of the tragic event of nuclear strike. At this point, we knew that any city would have given up at this very stage but Hiroshima took its recovery step by step to rise again and the only thing they needed was time. Today, Hiroshima and Nagasaki left a mark in the history of turning the impossible to possible by rebuilding what was destroyed into modern cities that bear the regalia of hope for all humanity. Conclusion Coming to a conclusion to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, we as a team do believe that such a tragedy has left a permanent scar not just to the people of Japan, but also to the whole world. The two bombs that were dropped upon these two locations were the first and last usage of nuclear weaponry in warfare up-to-date. The people of the world bear witness to one of the most catastrophic man-made disaster which causes tremendous damage to innocent lives and the environment. The large Area of Effect (AOE) caused by this incident has caused a huge damage to the environment on a very large scale. The environmental damage varies from land, sea, and air. Radiation emission was the biggest environmental impact caused by these atomic bombs. The water was polluted with high cloudiness, coloured, hazardous taste, odour, unsuitable pH level and much more. The land and air are both badly polluted which results in contaminated and damaged soil for crops and soil, which affects food source. The two areas became a nuclear wasteland for a period of time and people are starting to think that such a thing is irrecoverable. But Japan has proven them wrong. Despite facing such a dreadful situation, Japan managed to recover from the incident. Both Hiroshima and Nagasaki is now even livelier than before which serves as a reminder of the human ability to recover and regenerate. The mitigation and remediation process took years for them to get back on their feet. Nevertheless, they succeeded in the end, turning the tables from a polluted environment in every direction, to a suitable place and habitat of the living, may it be humans, animals or plants. The people of Japan did not rely on the environment’s natural ability to decay the radiation completely over hundred millions of years and put things into their own hands. Atomic bombing has caused nothing but trouble to the world, and we believe that it is nothing less than an inexcusable act of mass murder. We also strongly believe that the continuous usage of such is inhumane and would result in a more terrifying destruction considering the condition of the planet now is even worse than before in environmental terms. No matter what the reason may be, destruction as such to the environment is unforgivable as it creates a channelling chain reaction which brings harm to those around it.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Views on the Topic of Reeds Book Forest Dweller, Forest Protectors Ess

Views on the Topic of Reed's Book Forest Dweller, Forest Protectors Many of the countries of South America have experienced severe balance of payments deficits. In order to encourage development and solve these problems, the governments have engaged in misguided and largely unsuccessful development projects in the rain forests. Ranchers have cleared the forests to raise cattle. Colonization projects have brought small farmers into regions that were once virgin forest. The farming practices that were developed in temperate regions are not very successful in these areas. The land is quickly depleted and the farmers and ranchers clear more forest. The authors of this article suggest that this pattern is not necessary. They explain that simply by following the models of sustainable resource extraction practiced by the indigenous people of the area, the resources of the rain forest can be utilized sustainably. The areas in which sustainable resource extraction is being investigated include gathered products, wild game, aquaculture, agriculture, and resource units. The authors explain each type of resource and touch on how each can be extracted sustainably with the help of indigenous models. For example, game animals could be taken from the forest sustainably if they were "cropped in a form of ‘semi-domestication’ in abandoned garden sites" (Posey, et al 1984). This would mimic the indigenous people such as the Guaranà ­ who are able to keep populations of important game animals artificially high when they allow them to eat food plants out of their gardens. If this model were followed, more animals could be hunted with less harm to the population. Agricultural practices of native peoples could also be copi... ... and used for meat in a sustainable way. I find this point to be highly controversial. Large mammals such as manatees are more vulnerable to over-hunting because their populations are not very dense. Many varieties of turtles are already endangered in the rain forests because there is too much sediment and pollution in the rivers. I don’t think that these species should be considered in sustainable hunting programs. Finally, some of the ideas of these authors, including gathering insects, organizing plantations of fruit bearing trees and keeping animals that eat the fruits on the land as a "game farm," and developing resource units seem a little bit far fetched. All of the ideas of this paper do, however, merit careful review. Any use of a rain forest that maintains the biodiversity and all allows the ecosystem to remain intact is better than clear cutting.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Should music file servers on the Internet should be shut down?

This assignment is all about persuasive writing, putting a controversial subject in matter and weighing up all the different viewpoints so I can make a final conclusion on the matter. I am going to write about the controversial matter of Napster and any other file sharing programs used over the Internet to swap music between computers. People send songs over the Internet to other people who can hear them for free once downloaded whenever they like with the recording artist and every other benefactor of record sales losing out. Should music file servers on the Internet should be shut down? Introduction Within the last decade computers have become very important to our lives and home computers, PC's, have become commonplace in most households. The internet has also been going from strength to strength, millions upon millions of people all round the world log on everyday to search for information, send e-mails, talk to people in different countries and a whole lot more. But within the last 3 or 4 years, file servers such as Napster, WinMX and Morpheus to name a few have sprung up allowing people to download their favourite songs straight to their computer without having to pay a penny. Record companies have been unhappy with this and are seeking legal action at the moment, while many people are rejoicing at the concept of free music. What I'm trying to do in this assignment is consider all the views and arguments of both sides and write down my viewpoints on the matter. The downfall of the record industry?! Record companies and artists have been in legal battles recently with file sharing servers such as Napster over the past year or two. They feel that these file sharing servers are illegal and should be shut down, firstly because these are copies of their albums and singles which are being spread about all over the Internet, which is piracy therefore illegal. Secondly people downloading these files aren't paying for these songs, so they are not supporting the music business which is having to manufacture and spend millions on making these records. Thirdly they feel that the increasing number of people using these servers will result in the downfall of the music industry altogether. The record companies just want to make sure that they will have a future, the same with artists but by the looks of it even artists losing their recording contracts wont hurt their futures much as the trend of singers and musicians moving into other celebrity occupations is on the rise such as tv presenter and so on. The record business sees this as a major threat to them, even more than radio, which could be taped off but never had such an impact such as the Internet. They are trying their hardest legally to shut down the music file servers. I don't really believe why the record companies are taking it so far, I don't see them losing out so much anyway because it is a billion dollar business after all. Maybe they should just hope it fades away after a while which I think it will do. Money, Money, Money Many people disagree with the record companies when they say its ‘the downfall of the music industry' because they feel that

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Power Of The Zoot By Luis Alvarez - 1293 Words

In the power of the Zoot, Luis Alvarez investigates the multiple meanings of the immensely popular zoot suit culture during world war two (Alvarez, p. 2). The youth were extremely influenced by the zoot suit. The zoot suit gave minorities a sense of belonging. Throughout this book, the author discusses race, gender roles, generation differences, dignity, and national belonging/violence during world war two. Part one of this book â€Å"Dignity Denied: Youth in the Early War Years†, discusses the political and economic context of the United States in the early 1940’s, when the zoot suit style grew popular (Alvarez, p. 10). During world war two, many African and Mexican Americans contributed to the war effort, because they thought it was what they needed to do in order to improve their standard of living. African Americans and Mexican Americans even fought in the war. However they were still excluded from feelings of patriotism and national belonging because of their race. Even though they were essential in the war effort, they were still being discriminated against. They were expected to join the military and protect a country that failed to acknowledge their civil rights at home (Alvarez, p. 239). African Americans and Mexican Americans were being denied equal membership in U.S society. This race discrimination denied dignity to those who were minorities. For minorities there was everyday discrimination in restaurants, public services, housing and education (Alvarez, p. 18). BothShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesPerception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource Policies and Practices 543 18 Organizational Change

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Pros and Cons of Year-Round School

Year-round school in the United States is neither a new concept nor an unusual one. Traditional school calendars and year-round schedules both provide students with about 180 days in the classroom. But instead of taking off much of the summertime, year-round school programs take a series of shorter breaks throughout the year. Advocates say the shorter breaks make it easier for students to retain knowledge and are less disruptive to the learning process. Detractors say the evidence to support this assertion is unconvincing. Traditional School Calendars Most public schools in America operate on the 10-month system, which gives students 180 days in the classroom. The school year typically begins a few weeks before or after Labor Day and concludes around Memorial Day, with time off during Christmas and New Years and again around Easter. This school schedule has been the default since the earliest days of the nation when the U.S. was still an agrarian society, and children were needed to work in the fields during the summer. Year-Round Schools Educators began experimenting with a more balanced school calendar in the early 1900s, but the idea of a year-round model didnt really catch on until the 1970s. Some advocates said it would help students retain knowledge. Others said it could help schools reduce overcrowding by staggering start times throughout the year.   The most common application of year-round education uses the 45-15 plan. Students attend school for 45 days, or about nine weeks, then take off for three weeks, or 15 school days. The normal breaks for holidays and spring remain in place with this calendar. Other ways to organize the calendar include the 60-20 and 90-30 plans. Single-track year-round education involves an entire school using the same calendar and getting the same holidays off. Multiple-track year-round education puts groups of students in school at different times with different vacations. Multitracking usually occurs when school districts want to save money. PeopleImages / Getty Images Arguments in Favor As of 2017, nearly 4,000 public schools in the U.S. follow a year-round schedule—around 10 percent of the nations students. Some of the most common reasons in favor of year-round schooling are as follows: Students tend to forget a lot during the summer, and shorter vacations might increase retention rates.School buildings unused in the summer are wasted resources.Short breaks provide time for students to receive enrichment education.Remediation can occur when it is most needed during the school year.Students get bored during the long break of summer.It gives families more options for scheduling vacations, rather than restricting travel to summertime.Other countries around the world use this system.Schools on year-round schedules can accommodate more students through multitracking. Rushay Booysen / EyeEm / Getty Images Arguments Against Opponents say year-round schooling hasnt proven to be as effective as its advocates claim. Some parents also complain that such schedules make it more difficult to plan family vacations or child care. Some of the most common arguments against year-round schools include: Studies have not conclusively proven the academic benefits.Students forget information just as easily with a three-week break as 10. Therefore, teachers on a year-round system end up with four periods of review instead of just one at a new school year.Summer programs such as youth camps suffer.Student summer employment becomes virtually impossible.Many older school buildings do not have air conditioning, making a year-round schedule impractical.Band and other extracurricular programs can run into problems scheduling practices and competitions, which often take place during the summer months.With multitracking, parents could have students at the same school on different schedules. School administrators considering year-round education should identify their goals and investigate whether a new calendar can help achieve them. When implementing any significant change, involving all stakeholders in the decision and the process improves the outcome. If students, teachers, and parents dont support a  new schedule, a transition could be difficult. Sources National Education Association staff. Research Spotlight on Year-Round Education. NEA.org, 2017. Niche.com staff. Schools Without Summer Break: An In-Depth Look at Year-Round Schooling. Niche.com, 12 April 2017. Weller, Chris. Year-Round School is Booming but Its Benefits Are Overhyped. BusinessInsider.com, 5 June 2017. Zubrzycki, Jacklyn. Year-Round Schooling Explained. Edweek.org, 18 December 2015.